These practices are tremendously important to know how humans act and interact with each other.
It is pervasive i. It is universal — It is applicable in business as well as other social and political organisations. It is a social process — It deals with people and aims at optimum utilization of resources for the benefit of society as a whole.
It is intangible — It cannot be seen but can be felt in form of increase in production, sales or profit. It is goal oriented — Management aims at achieving various economic and non-economic goals. It is a group activity — Management involves getting things done through people in a formally organized group and aids in achieving individual as well as organisational goals.
It is a system of authority — Authority is the right to give orders and the power to obtain obedience from employees. It is a distinct activity and dynamic activity — A manager visualizes the problems in a business and takes suitable steps to adapt the business with the changing internal and external environment.
It is a science as well as an Art — It is a systematic body of knowledge based on general principles which are universally applicable therefore it is a science. But a manager also requires various skills and creativity to solve complex problems and achieve results and hence it is also an art.
It is multi-disciplinary — It is borrows from psychology, sociology, anthropology, ecology, economics, statistics, operations research etc. It is a process which involves certain functions like planning, organising, staffing, directing and controlling.
Management — Science or Art? It can be considered as science as: It is a systematic body of knowledge It is a Social Science i. Managers diagnose and solve problems using sound knowledge, experience and creativity.
It involves combination of human and non-human resources in a creative way. Every manager manages differently based on his knowledge and experience. It requires constant practice to become a successful manager.
Therefore, Management is considered a science as well as an art. The management process involves series of actions or operations that are performed in a sequence to achieve organizational goals and objectives.
The main functions of a management process are: Planning — It is the process of forecasting future needs of the organisation and making decisions regarding future course of action required to accomplish goals. It is a thinking process concerned with determination of — what is to be done?
It provides direction to the enterprise and helps in coping up with environmental changes. A manager takes decisions about division of work, allocation of authority and responsibility and coordination of tasks with an organization. Organizing involves division of work into convenient tasks or duties, grouping such duties and delegating authority in the form of posts to employees.
It contributes towards the efficiency of an organization. Staffing — It is an activity where people are recruited, selected, trained, developed, motivated and compensated for managing various positions. It involves movement of individuals into an organisation and movement of people within organisation transfer, promotion, job rotation and movement of people outside the organization termination, retirement.
It is essentially selecting the right man for the right job. It involves — Recruitment — It is the process of attracting maximum number of applicants for a particular job. Selection — Screening the candidates and choosing the best one out of them.
Compensation — Price paid to workers for services they render to the organisation. Directing — It is the function of guiding and supervising the activities of the subordinates. It involves the following activities — Leading — It includes motivating and communicating with people individually and in groups for the purpose of stimulating people to be high performers.
Influencing — Guiding the activities of members of an organization in an appropriate direction.
Motivatiing — It is the process of stimulating people to take a desired courses of action. A manager inspires and encourages employees to take required action.
Communicating — It involves transfer of information from one person to another. Controlling — It is the process of influencing actions of a person or group to attain desired objectives.
It includes four activities — Setting standards of performance Comparing actual performance from planned performance on standards Taking corrective actions to ensure accomplishment of objectives It is the process of visualizing deviations in the performance and taking corrective actions based on gap between actual and planned standards of performance.
Optimum utilization of resources — A manager eliminates wastage which leads to efficiency in all business operations. Effective leadership and motivation — It helps the employees to work in harmony and achieve goals in a coordinated manner.The nature of man is intricate; the objects of society are of the greatest possible complexity; and therefore no simple disposition or direction of power can be suitable either to .
In the state of nature man's contact with his fellow men is so infrequent and discontinuous that mere instinct is a sufficient guide to conduct. Lectures on the Principles of Political Obligation (London and New York, ). Of the studies more strictly limited to the analysis of Rousseau's political thought, particularly worthy of mention.
Process within or between political communities where public values are articulated, debated and prescribed.
If we accept political science as a science in the same way that the natural sciences are, behavior must ultimately be describable by consistent causal laws, and yet, if human beings do not act predictably, or if their actions aren't. A framework for public policy analysis and policy evaluation M.
Theo Jans IES research colloqium – 4 September –How are they placed on political and policy agenda? –Clash with norms, values, principles –Unfavourable comparisons with other countries/situations.