Youth assumes as the part as the most key resource for a country. Therefore, the researcher has chosen to study the profile of youth leaders in Malaysia Youth Council. The instrument used for this research is done through the quantitative findings by using questionnaires that have been distributed around to the youth association though out Malaysia under Malaysia Youth Association.
The first native scholar to use the name was Ki Hajar Dewantarawhen in he established a press bureau in the Netherlands, Indonesisch Pers-bureau. Outrigger boats from the archipelago may have made trade voyages to the east coast of Africa as early as the 1st century CE. They arrived around 4, years ago, and as they spread through the archipelago, confined the indigenous Melanesians to the far eastern regions.
The archipelago's strategic sea-lane position fostered inter-island and international trade, including links with Indian kingdoms and Chinese dynasties, which were established several centuries BCE.
This period marked a renaissance of Hindu- Buddhist art in ancient Java. In western Java, Sunda Kingdom was re-established circa according to Sanghyang Tapak inscription.
In Balithe Warmadewas established their rule in the 10th century. The Hindu Majapahit kingdom was founded in eastern Java in the late 13th century, and under Gajah Madaits influence stretched over much of present-day Indonesia.
For the most part, Islam overlaid and mixed with existing cultural and religious influences, which shaped the predominant form of Islam in Indonesia, particularly in Java. For almost years, the company was the dominant European power in the archipelago.
Inthe Netherlands introduced the Dutch Ethical Policy that was aimed at improving living conditions and welfare, expanding education to native peoples,  and preparing the archipelago for self-government under Dutch control. A later United Nations report stated that the Japanese occupation resulted in a total of 4 million deaths.
The Netherlands tried to re-establish their rule, and an armed and diplomatic struggle ensued. In Decemberthe Dutch formally recognised Indonesian independence in the face of international pressure,  with the exception of the Netherlands New Guineawhich was later incorporated into Indonesia following the New York Agreement and the disputed referendum that led to the ongoing Papua conflict.
In the late s, Sukarno moved Indonesia from democracy towards authoritarianism, and maintained his power base by balancing the opposing forces of the military and the Communist Party of Indonesia Partai Komunis Indonesia, PKI.
His New Order administration  was supported by the United States,    and encouraged foreign direct investment  which was a major factor in the subsequent three decades of substantial economic growth. However, his administration was widely accused of corruption and suppression of political opposition.
Although relations among different religious and ethnic groups are largely harmonious, sectarian discontent and violence have persisted. Indonesia's seismic and volcanic activity is among the world's highest. Indonesia's largest rivers are in Kalimantan and New Guineaand include KapuasBaritoMamberamoSepik and Mahakam ; such rivers are communication and transport links between the island's river settlements.
Climate of Indonesia Typical Indonesian rainforest, mostly found in Kalimantan and Sumatra Lying along the equatorIndonesia's climate tends to be relatively even year-round. However, cooler climate types do exist in mountainous regions of Indonesia 1, to 1, metres 4, to 4, feet above sea level.
Some regions, such as Kalimantan and Sumatraexperience only slight differences in rainfall and temperature between the seasons, whereas others, such as Nusa Tenggara, experience far more pronounced differences with droughts in the dry season, and floods in the wet. Parts of Sulawesi and some islands closer to Australia, such as Sumba is drier.
Winds are moderate and generally predictable, with monsoons usually blowing in from the south and east in June through October and from the northwest in November through March. Typhoons and large scale storms pose little hazard to mariners in Indonesian waters; the major danger comes from swift currents in channels, such as the Lombok and Sape straits.
Volcanoes of Indonesia Major volcanoes in Indonesia. Indonesia is in the Pacific Ring of Fire area. TectonicallyIndonesia is highly unstable, making it a site of numerous volcanoes and frequent earthquakes.
While volcanic ash has resulted in fertile soils a factor in historically sustaining high population densities of Java and Bali it makes agricultural conditions unpredictable in some areas. It is believed to have caused a global volcanic winter and cooling of the climate, and subsequently led to a genetic bottleneck in human evolution, though this is still debated.
The former resulted in 92, deaths and created an umbrella of volcanic ash which spread and blanketed parts of the archipelago, and made much of Northern Hemisphere without summer in Significant additional effects were also felt around the world years after the eruption.
Biodiversity Species endemic to Indonesia. Rafflesia arnoldiiorangutangreater bird-of-paradiseand Komodo dragon.
Indonesia's size, tropical climate, and archipelagic geography support a high level of biodiversity. Large species such as the Sumatran tigerrhinoceros, orangutan, Asian elephantand leopard, were once abundant as far east as Bali, but numbers and distribution have dwindled drastically.
Sulawesi, Nusa Tenggara, and Maluku — having been long separated from the continental landmasses—have developed their own unique flora and fauna. The country has a range of sea and coastal ecosystems, including beachessand dunes, estuaries, mangroves, coral reefs, seagrass beds, coastal mudflats, tidal flats, algal beds, and small island ecosystems.
Flora and fauna on the west of the line are more Asian, while east from Lombok they are increasingly Australian until the tipping point at the Weber Line.
In his book, The Malay ArchipelagoWallace described numerous species unique to the area. Environment of Indonesia Indonesia's large and growing population, and rapid industrialisation, present serious environmental issues.Teks Ucapan Perdana Menteri Budget Second: Enhancing the role of neighbourhood watch (rukun tetangga) to assist in safeguarding the neighbourhood.
For this, the Government targets 6, neighbourhood watch locations (kawasan rukun tetangga – KRT) by Felda will implement and complete new generation housing projects. May 19, · King unveils new RT logo and song THE STAR - Nation Friday May 19, KANGAR: The Yang di-Pertuan Agong, Tuanku Sirajuddin Syed Putra Jamalullail unveiled the new Rukun Tetangga logo and theme song when launching the National Unity Month Celebration at the Kangar Stadium in Perlis Friday.
In Malaysia, Rukun Tetangga (RT) or Neighborhood Watch Committee was set up in by the Jabatan Perpaduan dan Intergrasi Nasional (JPNIN) or Department of National Unity and National Integration. Its main objective was to ensure neighborhood safety. RW/RT code (Rukun Warga – Citizen’s Watch / Rukun Tetangga – Neighbourhood Watch) – lowest form of government strata to run daily social life of citizens (sounds like .
“Neighbourhood watch committees today should be more proactive in implementing programmes which can create an impact and bring positive changes in uniting residents of an area,” he noted.
Gandesan was speaking at a Perak Rukun Tetangga Leadership programme officiated by Menteri Besar Datuk Seri Dr Zambry Abdul Kadir. About Me. Resume References History. Writing. Information Science Web Development Indonesia Bali by Bicycle Kamus Demography.
Kamus: An Indonesian to English Word List.