This failure rate is largely attributed to the lack of integration between quality management practices, business strategy, and environmental uncertainty. This article proposes a contingency model relating quality approach, strategic orientation, and environmental uncertainty.
Current issues in agricultural development The country: The second most populous African country after Nigeria, Ethiopia has a population of The main characteristic of the climate is its erratic rainfall patterns. The southwest highlands receive the highest average rainfall, while precipitation decreases towards the northeast and the east.
Even in areas with a high mean annual rainfall, the variations can be extreme. Chronically drought-prone areas cover almost 50 percent of the country's total area and affect about 20 million people.
Disaster management in Ethiopia: Drought was at the root of at least ten famine episodes in the last 40 years which have affected large areas and significant portions of the population.
In the last 20 years, the most serious droughts in terms of human suffering were those of and Agriculture accounts for 50 percent of the country's GDP and 90 percent of exports.
In terms of area under cultivation, cereals teff, maize, barley, wheat are the major crop category, followed by pulses horse beans, chickpeas, haricot beans and oilseeds mainly neug and linseed. Coffee is the main export accounting for The smallholder sector accounts for 90 percent of the country's agricultural output.
The average farm size is estimated to be between 1 and 1. The overall growth of GDP during the s and s 1. Economic policies affecting agriculture The search for proximate causes of both agricultural and general economic stagnation in Ethiopia since the mids leads to a set of interrelated structural constraints and policy factors.
In addition to the harsh agroclimatic conditions, inadequate and poorly maintained infrastructure, environmental degradation and inadequate technology have contributed to the decline of agriculture.
At the policy level, macroeconomic and sector-specific policies have contributed to the creation of a negative environment for agricultural growth. The rise to power of the revolutionary government in marked the beginning of an era of tight direct government controls on the production and distribution systems.
A brief description of the policies implemented as well as their effects help explain the nature and magnitude of the problems facing Ethiopia today.
In Ethiopia, macroeconomic policies have traditionally been characterized by prudent fiscal management. The fiscal deficit was kept at an average of 7 percent of GDP for most years between andwith the exception of drought years. An aggressive policy of fiscal receipts prevented the deficits from ballooning.
The budgetary effects of external shocks were mitigated by foreign disaster-relief flows. In general, foreign flows of grants and loans left about half the deficit to be financed internally. As the government avoided recourse to inflationary financing, average inflation was kept close to 9 percent during the 17 years ending in Ethiopia's economy in the s and framework for accelerated growth, Washington, DC.
While a macroeconomic balance and price stability are necessary for growth, Ethiopia is an example of how these two factors may not be sufficient. Public fixed investment expenditure grew by almost 16 percent annually afterwhile recurrent expenditure grew by 5 percent.
It was chiefly channelled towards directly productive activities mainly in manufacturing and public utilitieswhich often had questionable efficiency performances.
During the s, 30 percent of real capital outlays were devoted to agriculture including state farms and land settlement and only 15 percent to infrastructure transport and communications.
II - statistical annex. An aggressive revenue policy brought total fiscal revenues from 20 to 29 percent of GDP in the s. Tax collection was divided evenly among domestic indirect taxes, business profit taxes and taxes on foreign trade. Taxes on coffee exports amounted to 30 to 40 percent of the f.
Profits made by the lucrative state enterprises mainly airways, mining and shipping constituted an increasing share of total revenues.
Occasionally, emergency levies and surcharges were imposed. Institutional constraints on private business activity, for example a ceiling of 0. High levels of deposits could be attracted at low interest rates forced savings and they were, in turn, mobilized for financing the domestic deficit.
As a result, 85 to 90 percent of domestic financing came from the banking system.Faculty of Management Department of Business Administration M.J.P.
Rohilkhand University Bareilly (U.P.) Syllabus MBA (Marketing) Two Years. Marketing Environmental Factors Companies get resources from the environment and supplies goods and services to the environment. There are different environmental factors that affect a business ability to serve its customers.
Micro and macro environments have a significant impact on the success of marketing campaigns, and therefore the factors of these environments should be considered in-depth during the decision making process of a strategic marketer.
External environment consists both Micro environment and Macro Environment.
These external factors are not controlled by a firm, but they greatly influence the decision of marketers when developing the marketing strategy. Jun 30, · Preparing a marketing environmental analysis is an essential step in understanding the external local, national or international forces that might affect your small business.
These factors are. Environmental governance is a concept in political ecology and environmental policy that advocates sustainability (sustainable development) as the supreme consideration for managing all human activities—political, social and economic.
Governance includes government, business and civil society, and emphasizes whole system initiativeblog.com capture this diverse range of elements, environmental.