Colonization of Africa brought about cultural alienation and one of them being the diffusion of the European languages into the African culture rendering the African languages to occupy an underprivileged position. This can be attributed to the fact that the European languages were used as the medium of instructions in schools consequently making them to be the languages of the African elite. But with the need to define African literature, there has been a debate about the language which the African literature should adopt for it to be regarded as African literature.
From that time on the country was continuously fought over by both European, and later the American, governments for its richness in raw, natural resources. This led to an establishment of an English style government and exploitation of both the country and natives.
Today, Mestizos European with indigenous peoples number about 45 percent of the population; unmixed Maya make up another 6. The Garifuna, who came to Belize in the s, originating from Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, with a mixed African, Cariband Arawak ancestry, take up another 5 percent of the population.
Guatemala Many of the indigenous peoples of Guatemala are of Maya heritage. Pure Maya account for some 40 percent of the population; although around 40 percent of the population speaks an indigenous language, those tongues of which there are more than 20 enjoy no official status.
There is a native Miskito language, but large groups speak Miskito creole English, Spanish, Rama and others. The creole English came about through frequent contact with the British.
Over the centuries the Miskito have intermarried with escaped slaves who have sought refuge in Miskito communities. Traditional Miskito society was highly structured, with a defined political structure.
There was a king but he did not have total power. Instead, the power was split between him, a governorPostcolonial language debate generaland by the s, an admiral. Historical information on kings is often obscured by the fact that many of the kings were semi- mythical.
South America The Natives of South America constructed vast empires, with impressive engineering accomplishments, but there were also many small tribes that lived in the plateaus, highlands and valleys.
Inthe Inca Empire Postcolonial language debate the rule of emperor Pachacutec launched an offensive and conquered present-day northwestern Argentina, integrating it into a region called Collasuyu. The central and southern areas Pampas and Patagonia were dominated by nomadic cultures, unified in the seventeenth century by the Mapuches.
During the early part of this period it was largely a country of Spanish immigrants and their descendants, known as creoles, some of them gathered in the Buenos Aires and other cities, others living on the pampas as gauchos.
Indigenous peoples inhabited much of the rest of Argentina. The emergence of a European centered government that either ignored or mistreated the natives did not help the situation, and their numbers dwindled to about nine percent of the total population, which is the level that they compromise currently.
Bolivia Anthropomorphic vase from the Tiwanaku civilization Beginning about the second century B. This culture, centered around and named for the great city of Tiwanaku, developed advanced architectural and agricultural techniques before it disappeared around C.
Roughly contemporaneous with the Tiwanakan culture, the Moxos in the eastern lowlands and the Mollos north of present-day La Paz, Bolivia also developed advanced agricultural societies that had dissipated by the thirteenth century.
The Aymara, a belligerent people who lived in fortified hilltop towns, had an extraordinary ability to adapt to the unique climatic conditions of the region and increased their food supply through irrigation and the process of freezing and drying crops.
The Aymara completely dominated the Uru, another major ethnic group in the pre-Columbian southern Andes. Although the Uru might have preceded the Aymara in the region, by the twelfth century they were poor fishermen and landless workers.
The Aymara, however, were not able to contain the expansion of the Quechua, the third major ethnic group. After the collapse of the Tiahuanacan Empire, a Quechua-speaking state emerged in the area around Cuzco became known as the Incas when they adopted the name of their rulers, were the most powerful group in the northern highlands.
As the Aymara kingdoms in the south became weaker in the second half of the fifteenth century, the Incas began to conquer them.
However, civil unrest and violent opposition to Spanish rule continued for decades after, as nearly all the different ethnic groups resisted colonization.
The languages are recognized; nevertheless, there are no official documents written in the languages, and prejudice has existed against those who do not speak Spanish, the official language of the country.
However, the constitutional reform in for the first time recognized Bolivia as a multilingual, pluri-ethnic society and introduced education reform. Brazil A Brazilia Indian couple Fossil records found in Minas Gerais show evidence that the area now called Brazil has been inhabited for at least 8, years by indigenous populations.
For this reason, very little is known about the history of Brazil before Archaeological remains mainly pottery indicate a complex pattern of regional cultural developments, internal migrations, and occasional large state-like federations.
Depiction of cannibalism in the Brazilian Tupinamba tribe, as described by Hans Staden By the time the first European explorers arrived, all parts of the territory were inhabited by semi-nomadic Indian tribes, who subsisted on a combination of hunting, fishinggathering, and agriculture.
The population density was rather low, however; total numbers have been estimated at one million people but recent archaeological discoveries, such as those mentioned above, seem to indicate a much higher number. Although many Brazilian Indians succumbed to massacres, diseases, and the hardships of slavery and displacement, many were absorbed into the Brazilian population.
The children of these Portuguese men and Indian women formed the majority of the population. A few tribes were able to survive in remote areas, and today some still subsist in their pre-discovery lifestyle in remote corners of the Amazon rainforest.
In the twentieth century, the Brazilian Government adopted a more humanitarian attitude and offered official protection to the indigenous people, including the establishment of the first Indian reserves. The remaining unacculturated tribes have been contacted by FUNAI, and accommodated within Brazilian society in varying degrees.Implications of the National Language Policy in the South African Classroom 1.
Laurence Wright [Note: This paper is pubished here as a contribution from Professor Laurence Wright to the debate on language in education in South Africa. Free Postcolonial Literature papers, essays, and research papers. The Postcolonial Debate. Recommend Documents.
The Postcolonial Gothic. Cambridge Umvmity Press 2 - Postcolonial ﬁctions of slavery 30 a way to seize a moment, so to speak, in literary history, and blast open the space of EDUCATION & DEBATE For Debate - The BMJ. Shakespeare Speaks is a brand new series of 20 animated shorts, each looking at a popular English phrase or expression, as coined by William Shakespeare yet still very much used today.
The English language is brought to life, explained and practised by The Bard himself with the help of a cast of imagined characters including his actor friends and ditzy daughter. The postcolonial language debate about African culture has become a big issue in determining if the African culture is actually being taught to younger generations.
Language is often on focus in postcolonial studies.
This problem of language has been brought out by the imposition and the encouragement of the dominance of the European native language on the colonized to the extent that even the colonised were forbidden to speak their mother tongues.