Career[ edit ] Early career as reporter[ edit ] After graduating from Harvard, Cramer worked in several entry-level reporting jobs. Then-executive editor, Richard Oppelhas said "[Cramer] was like a driving ram. He was great at getting the story.
His great grandfather was Isaac Bernayschief rabbi of Hamburg. Bernays was a "double nephew" of Viennese psychoanalyst Sigmund Freud —by virtue of his mother, Freud's sisterand of his father's sister, Martha Bernays Freudwho married Sigmund. The Bernays family moved from Vienna to the United States in the s.
Ely Bernays became a grain exporter at the Manhattan Produce Exchange, then sent for his wife and children. She was the first married woman to be issued a US passport without her husband's last name.
Later, however, she changed her mind and her name, becoming Doris Bernays. By all accounts, Fleischman played a major though quiet role in the Bernays public relations business—including ghost-writing numerous memos and speeches, and publishing a newsletter. He went to Paris and worked for Louis Dreyfus and Company reading grain cables.
By December of the same year he had returned to New York. They took editorial positions in favor of showers and against corsets and distributed free copies to thousands of physicians across the country.
After publishing a positive review of the play, Bernays and Robinson wrote to its lead actor, Richard Bennett: You can count on our help. Already, he was using a variety of techniques which would become hallmarks of his later practice. He promoted the Daddy Long Legs stage play by tying it in with the cause of charity for orphans.
To create interest in Diaghilev's Ballets Russeshe educated Americans about the subtleties of ballet—and publicized a picture of Flore Revalleswearing a tight-fitting dress, at the Bronx Zoo, posed the executive summary in a business plan should comedy a large snake. He built up Enrico Caruso as an idol whose voice was so sensitive that comically extreme measures were taken to protect it.
Bernays, along with Lieutenant F. Ackerman, focused on building support for war, domestically and abroad, focusing especially on businesses operating in Latin America. A scandal arose from his reference to propaganda in a press release.
As reported by the New York World, the "announced object of the expedition is 'to interpret the work of the Peace Conference by keeping up a worldwide propaganda to disseminate American accomplishments and ideals.
There was one basic lesson I learned in the CPI—that efforts comparable to those applied by the CPI to affect the attitudes of the enemy, of neutrals, and people of this country could be applied with equal facility to peacetime pursuits.
In other words, what could be done for a nation at war could be done for organizations and people in a nation at peace. In he published a book, " Crystallizing Public Opinion ", outlining his profession, and taught a course at New York University. Both of these are considered firsts in the modern field of public relations.
Bernays, who pursued his calling in New York City from tostyled himself a "public relations counsel". He had very pronounced views on the differences between what he did and what people in advertising did. A pivotal figure in the orchestration of elaborate corporate advertising campaigns and multi-media consumer spectacles, he nevertheless is among those listed in the acknowledgments section of the seminal government social science study "Recent Social Trends in the United States" Bernays attempted to help Venida hair nets company to get women to wear their hair longer so they would use hairnets more.
The campaign failed but did get government officials to require hairnets for some jobs. The campaign successfully convinced people that Ivory soap was medically superior to other soaps.
He also promoted soap through sculpting contests and floating contests because the soap floated better than competing products. Bernays used his uncle Sigmund Freud 's ideas to help convince the public, among other things, that bacon and eggs was the true all-American breakfast. Yet another client, department store visionary Edward A.
Bernays' Typescript on the Importance of Samuel Strauss: The event, which spanned across several major cities in the US, was designed to celebrate the 50th anniversary of Thomas Edison 's invention of the light-bulb though the light-bulb had been previously invented by Joseph Swan.
The publicity elements of the Jubilee — including the special issuance of a US postage stamp and Edison's "re-creating" the invention of the light bulb for a nationwide radio audience — provided evidence of Bernays' love for big ideas and " ballyhoo ".
A follow-up event for the 75th anniversary, produced for television by David O. Political clients[ edit ] In Bernays set up a vaudeville "pancake breakfast" for Calvin Coolidge to change his stuffy image before the election.
Newspapers reported enthusiastically that Coolidge had laughed. Bernays advised Hoover to create disunity within his opposition and to present an image of himself as an invincible leader.
For example, he should tell Irish voters about his actions against the Italian mafia —and Italian voters about his plans to reform the police department. To Jews he should appear as a committed opponent of the Nazis.(Address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of Registrant’s principal executive offices) Richard Costolo.
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This document is intended for informational purposes only and is not a. “Great job, Anthony!” The preceding photo depicts an audience member expressing her appreciation for tenor Anthony Martin’s rendition of The Midnight Cry, the capstone of a March 24, performance of Faces Around the Cross presented by TAPESTRY Christian Storytelling Alliance.