Nature versus nurture Although developmental change runs parallel with chronological age,  age itself cannot cause development. Environmental factors affecting development may include both diet and disease exposure, as well as social, emotional, and cognitive experiences. Plasticity of this type can occur throughout the lifespan and may involve many kinds of behavior, including some emotional reactions. Genetic-environmental correlations are circumstances in which genetic factors make certain experiences more likely to occur.
Domestic Violence and Attachment Theory: Independent Practice Sausalito, CA For the past thirty years, the treatment of choice for perpetrators of domestic violence has generally fallen into two intervention categories - cognitive-behavior therapy e.
Other models, such as family systems Heyman and Schlee, and psychodynamic models Cogan and Porcerelli, have not garnered much interest by treatment providers for a number of reasons.
First, social activists have criticized these models as inherently either blaming the victim as in the case of family systems interventions or blaming the past as in the case of psychodynamic approaches.
Second, state laws that have been advocated by activists generally mandate the type of interventions providers must include in their programs, and these requirements usually are based on the feminist re-education model, such as that offered by the Domestic Abuse Intervention Project that has become to be known as the Duluth Model Pense and Paymar, Third, many programs for perpetrators are either run by or supervised by local shelters that tend to advocate a particular approach to intervention, which is usually the Duluth Model or a hybrid of Duluth and the behavioral model.
The most unfortunate aspect of this state of affairs is that our clients are the ultimate losers when the profession is unwilling or unable to innovate, explore and create newer and more effective models of intervention.
Another cause of this stagnancy is that the field has been prevented from growth due to the limitations of laws that have been enacted which dictate the allowable type of treatment models.
Imagine living in a society where laws were used to dictate a type of medical intervention for cancer or heart disease. Many states, such as California, have essentially mandated the Duluth Model into the law, even though numerous evaluations of the Duluth model have found that program participation had no impact on recidivism Davis, Taylor and Maxwell, ; Feder and Forde, ; Levesque, ; She, ; Shepard,This situation puts mental health professionals into a precarious position.
On the one hand, they are required by domestic violence law to provide a particular form of perpetrator intervention that may not be proven effectiveand on the other hand, they are also mandated by state licensing laws to provide effective services that are consistent with the profession — not those defined by domestic violence activists.
It is one thing to mandate intervention generally, it is another thing to define a specific form of intervention. Another unintentional outcome of the lack of change and evolution in the field may be related to treatment outcome.
Recent research suggests that the current intervention models employed today are only having a moderate effect on treatment outcome Babcock, Green and Robie, Could this moderate effect be due in part to the lack of innovation in the field?
This chapter will primarily focus on male perpetrators, however, many of the principles presented here can be applied to women as well. Women perpetrators are a special population and may need different attention for several reasons. First, a significant percentage of women perpetrators are also concurrent victims of domestic violence Leisring, Dowd and Rosenbaum, and therefore safety is a primary focus of treatment.
Second, women perpetrator typology categories, though similar, are not exactly the same as male typology categories Babcock, Miller, and Siard, Although there is some research on victims of domestic violence and attachment theory Henderson, Bartholomew and Dutton, ; Morgan and Shaver,there is less research on the typology of women perpetrators than males.
Therefore, some of the assumptions made about males in this chapter may not hold true for female perpetrators. Given these reasons, I will focus my attention on the male perpetrator, even at the risk of being accused of stereotyping.
I will begin with an overview of attachment theory as well as significant findings that are relevant to domestic violence. I will describe two methods of assessing attachment and how this innovative theory can be applied to clinical treatment. Since the s, also known at the decade of the brain, the neurosciences have extensively expanded our understanding of the brain and its relevance to psychotherapy.
Since attachment may be viewed as a form of affect regulation and domestic violence is one example of affect dysregulation, a discussion of the application of attachment theory to psychotherapy would not be complete without a discussion of the exciting new findings in the affective neurosciences.
Lastly, I will discuss how clinicians can integrate both attachment theory and affective neuroscience findings into their work with perpetrators of violence.
Attachment Theory Overview In his landmark trilogy, Attachment and Loss,the British psychiatrist John Bowlby posited a theory of development that contradicted the prevailing psychoanalytic theories of the time and proved to be a revolutionary way of understanding the nature of the attachment bonds between infants and their caregivers.
In his observations of infants separated from their mothers and fathers during hospitalizations, he saw the dire effects of separation distress on the emotional state of the child.
According to the theory, attachment is governed by a number of important principles. The distress produced by the stimulus directs and motivates infant to seek out soothing physical contact with the attachment figure.
Once activated, only physical attachment with the attachment figure will terminate the attachment behavioral system. The infant is like, as Cassidy describes, a heat-seeking missile, looking for an attachment figure typically the parent that is sufficiently near, available, and responsive.
When this attempt for protection is met with success, the attachment system de-activates, the anxiety is reduced, the infant is soothed, and play and exploration can resume.
When these needs are not met, the infant experiences extreme arousal and terror. When the system has been activated for a long time without soothing and termination, the system can then become suppressed. He witnessed a three phase behavioral display: He concluded from these observations that the primary function of protest was to generate displays that would lead to the return of the absent parent.
This expression of negative emotion may be viewed as an attempt to recapture the attachment figure that can soothe tension and anxiety at a developmental stage where the child cannot yet self soothe itself.
Mary Ainsworth was the American psychologist who brought Bowlby's theory to the United States and developed a method of assessing infant attachment. In her landmark book, Patterns of Attachment: A Psychological Study of the Strange Situationshe describes a currently widely used protocol, the strange situation, and the patterns of secure and insecure attachment.
Originally three patterns were observed, secure, anxious avoidant, and anxious ambivalent, but later on a fourth category, disorganized was described.Jun 27, · The Science of Brain and Biological Development: Implications for Mental Health Research, Practice and Policy As we further our understanding of the development of the brain and its relationship to other biological systems (such as the endocrine and immune systems) in the prenatal/early childhood (substantially prior to age five.
Folic acid is needed for the proper development of the human body. It is involved in producing the genetic material called DNA and in numerous other bodily functions. Serious kidney disease. About. Experience-based Brain Development: Scientific Underpinnings of the Importance There is no doubt that early child development has a long reach that affects studies by a number of investigators have now shown that other functions of the brain in the early years of development, such as language, literacy, cognition, and behavior, are.
Book reviews and excerpts about brain anatomy, neurobiology of human behavior, innate behavior, OCD neurocircuitry, effects of stress, attachment theory, family systems theory, ethology, and epigentics.
Sep 06, · Brain development involves a complex series of interactions between nerve cells. detrimental affects on the brain, especially during early childhood development. The factors that affect brain development can take effect from birth on.
By responding to signals that babies and young children show, parents not only satisfy their. Great post. Yes, the brains in our gut is definitely involved in some crucial functions and competencies. As you’ve pointed out there are numerous factors involved in the operation of the gut and the impact of the gut brain on the head brain.