The invention of writing and the earliest literatures plural

A Sample of Native Stoneworks on Cape Ann Algonquian cosmology and astrology are supported by myths and legends, like the story of the three hunters chasing the sky bear and wounding it, its blood causing the leaves to turn red in fall, and the bear recovering in hibernation until the stars rise again in spring. In some versions the bear dies and its cub emerges from the den to renew the cycle of the circumpolar stars.

The invention of writing and the earliest literatures plural

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Mesoamerican writing systems A stone slab with 3,year-old writing, the Cascajal Blockwas discovered in the Mexican state of Veracruz, and is an example of the oldest script in the Western Hemisphere, preceding the oldest Zapotec writing dated to about BC.

The earliest inscriptions which are identifiably Maya date to the 3rd century BC, and writing was in continuous use until shortly after the arrival of the Spanish conquistadores in the 16th century AD.

the invention of writing and the earliest literatures plural

Maya writing used logograms complemented by a set of syllabic glyphs: Iron Age writing[ edit ] Cippus PerusinusEtruscan writing near PerugiaItalythe precursor of the Latin alphabet The sculpture depicts a scene where three soothsayers are interpreting to King Suddhodana the dream of Queen Mayamother of Gautama Buddha.

Below them is seated a scribe recording the interpretation. This is possibly the earliest available pictorial record of the art of writing in India. From Nagarjunakonda2nd century CE. The Phoenician alphabet is simply the Proto-Canaanite alphabet as it was continued into the Iron Age conventionally taken from a cut-off date of BC.

This alphabet gave rise to the Aramaic and Greek alphabets.

the invention of writing and the earliest literatures plural

These in turn led to the writing systems used throughout regions ranging from Western Asia to Africa and Europe. For its part the Greek alphabet introduced for the first time explicit symbols for vowel sounds. The Brahmic family of India is believed by some scholars to have derived from the Aramaic alphabet as well.

Several varieties of the Greek alphabet developed. The other variation, known as Eastern Greekwas used in present-day Turkey and by the Athenians, and eventually the rest of the world that spoke Greek adopted this variation. After first writing right to left, like the Phoenicians, the Greeks eventually chose to write from left to right.

Greek is in turn the source for all the modern scripts of Europe. The most widespread descendant of Greek is the Latin scriptnamed for the Latinsa central Italian people who came to dominate Europe with the rise of Rome. The Romans learned writing in about the 5th century BC from the Etruscan civilizationwho used one of a number of Italic scripts derived from the western Greeks.

Due to the cultural dominance of the Roman state, the other Italic scripts have not survived in any great quantity, and the Etruscan language is mostly lost. Latin, never one of the primary literary languages, rapidly declined in importance except within the Church of Rome.

The primary literary languages were Greek and Persianthough other languages such as Syriac and Coptic were important too. The rise of Islam in the 7th century led to the rapid rise of Arabic as a major literary language in the region.

Arabic and Persian quickly began to overshadow Greek's role as a language of scholarship. Arabic script was adopted as the primary script of the Persian language and the Turkish language. This script also heavily influenced the development of the cursive scripts of Greek, the Slavic languagesLatinand other languages[ citation needed ].

The Arabic language also served to spread the Hindu—Arabic numeral system throughout Europe. Renaissance and the modern era[ edit ] By the 14th century a rebirth, or renaissancehad emerged in Western Europe, leading to a temporary revival of the importance of Greek, and a slow revival of Latin as a significant literary language.

A similar though smaller emergence occurred in Eastern Europe, especially in Russia. At the same time Arabic and Persian began a slow decline in importance as the Islamic Golden Age ended.Writing was not invented for the purpose of preserving literature; the earliest written documents contain commercial, administrative, political, and legal information.

They were created by the first "advanced" civilizations in an area that Westerners commonly call the Middle East. The history of writing traces the development of expressing language by letters or other marks and also the studies and descriptions of these developments.

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In the history of how writing systems have evolved over in different human civilizations, more complete writing systems were preceded by proto-writing, systems of ideographic or early mnemonic symbols. The invention of writing and the earliest literatures.

How was oral traditional literature preserved?. The invention of writing. Long before people learned to write, they made up stories People had to develop an accurate memory Slideshow by valterra bookmaking really began with the invention of writing.

the first forms of writing. The Invention of Writing and the. Earliest Literature And a Little About Gilgamesh In the Beginning • Before the invention of writing.

• Without written documents of this oral tradition.5/5(1). GENDER AND RELIGION: AN OVERVIEW The subtle patterns and dynamic of gender pervade all areas of religion, both explicitly and implicitly, whether fully recognized or unacknowledged.

Widely debated and often misunderstood, gender concerns have immense significance in contemporary culture as they are part of the international .

Full text of "The Jewish encyclopedia: a descriptive record of the history, religion, literature, and customs of the Jewish people from the earliest times to the present day" See other formats.

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